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Namespaces Article Talk. He did not receive a full humanistic education however; it is unclear how easily he read Latin.

Raphael was thus orphaned at eleven; his formal guardian became his only paternal uncle Bartolomeo, a priest, who subsequently engaged in litigation with his stepmother.

He probably continued to live with his stepmother when not staying as an apprentice with a master. He had already shown talent, according to Vasari, who says that Raphael had been "a great help to his father".

In Urbino, he came into contact with the works of Paolo Uccello , previously the court painter d.

According to Vasari, his father placed him in the workshop of the Umbrian master Pietro Perugino as an apprentice "despite the tears of his mother".

An alternative theory is that he received at least some training from Timoteo Viti , who acted as court painter in Urbino from Apart from stylistic closeness, their techniques are very similar as well, for example having paint applied thickly, using an oil varnish medium, in shadows and darker garments, but very thinly on flesh areas.

An excess of resin in the varnish often causes cracking of areas of paint in the works of both masters. It was commissioned in and finished in ; now only some cut sections and a preparatory drawing remain.

He very probably also visited Florence in this period. These are large works, some in fresco , where Raphael confidently marshals his compositions in the somewhat static style of Perugino.

He also painted many small and exquisite cabinet paintings in these years, probably mostly for the connoisseurs in the Urbino court, like the Three Graces and St.

Michael , and he began to paint Madonnas and portraits. The Coronation of the Virgin —3 Pinacoteca Vaticana. The Wedding of the Virgin , Raphael's most sophisticated altarpiece of this period Pinacoteca di Brera.

Raphael led a "nomadic" life, working in various centres in Northern Italy, but spent a good deal of time in Florence, perhaps from about Although there is traditional reference to a "Florentine period" of about —, he was possibly never a continuous resident there.

There is a letter of recommendation of Raphael, dated October , from the mother of the next Duke of Urbino to the Gonfaloniere of Florence : "The bearer of this will be found to be Raphael, painter of Urbino, who, being greatly gifted in his profession has determined to spend some time in Florence to study.

And because his father was most worthy and I was very attached to him, and the son is a sensible and well-mannered young man, on both accounts, I bear him great love As earlier with Perugino and others, Raphael was able to assimilate the influence of Florentine art, whilst keeping his own developing style.

Frescos in Perugia of about show a new monumental quality in the figures which may represent the influence of Fra Bartolomeo , who Vasari says was a friend of Raphael.

But the most striking influence in the work of these years is Leonardo da Vinci , who returned to the city from to Raphael's figures begin to take more dynamic and complex positions, and though as yet his painted subjects are still mostly tranquil, he made drawn studies of fighting nude men, one of the obsessions of the period in Florence.

Another drawing is a portrait of a young woman that uses the three-quarter length pyramidal composition of the just-completed Mona Lisa , but still looks completely Raphaelesque.

Another of Leonardo's compositional inventions, the pyramidal Holy Family , was repeated in a series of works that remain among his most famous easel paintings.

There is a drawing by Raphael in the Royal Collection of Leonardo's lost Leda and the Swan , from which he adapted the contrapposto pose of his own Saint Catherine of Alexandria.

But he keeps the soft clear light of Perugino in his paintings. Leonardo was more than thirty years older than Raphael, but Michelangelo, who was in Rome for this period, was just eight years his senior.

Michelangelo already disliked Leonardo, and in Rome came to dislike Raphael even more, attributing conspiracies against him to the younger man.

His Deposition of Christ draws on classical sarcophagi to spread the figures across the front of the picture space in a complex and not wholly successful arrangement.

Wöllflin detects in the kneeling figure on the right the influence of the Madonna in Michelangelo's Doni Tondo , but the rest of the composition is far removed from his style, or that of Leonardo.

Though highly regarded at the time, and much later forcibly removed from Perugia by the Borghese , it stands rather alone in Raphael's work. His classicism would later take a less literal direction.

The Ansidei Madonna , c. The Madonna of the Meadow , c. Saint Catherine of Alexandria , , possibly echoes the pose of Leonardo's Leda.

Deposition of Christ , , drawing from Roman sarcophagi. In , Raphael moved to Rome, where he resided for the rest of his life.

Peter's Basilica , who came from just outside Urbino and was distantly related to Raphael. Several other artists and their teams of assistants were already at work on different rooms, many painting over recently completed paintings commissioned by Julius's loathed predecessor, Alexander VI , whose contributions, and arms , Julius was determined to efface from the palace.

This first of the famous "Stanze" or " Raphael Rooms " to be painted, now known as the Stanza della Segnatura after its use in Vasari's time, was to make a stunning impact on Roman art, and remains generally regarded as his greatest masterpiece, containing The School of Athens , The Parnassus and the Disputa.

Raphael was then given further rooms to paint, displacing other artists including Perugino and Signorelli. He completed a sequence of three rooms, each with paintings on each wall and often the ceilings too, increasingly leaving the work of painting from his detailed drawings to the large and skilled workshop team he had acquired, who added a fourth room, probably only including some elements designed by Raphael, after his early death in The death of Julius in did not interrupt the work at all, as he was succeeded by Raphael's last Pope, the Medici Pope Leo X , with whom Raphael formed an even closer relationship, and who continued to commission him.

Raphael was clearly influenced by Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel ceiling in the course of painting the room. Vasari said Bramante let him in secretly.

The first section was completed in and the reaction of other artists to the daunting force of Michelangelo was the dominating question in Italian art for the following few decades.

Raphael, who had already shown his gift for absorbing influences into his own personal style, rose to the challenge perhaps better than any other artist.

One of the first and clearest instances was the portrait in The School of Athens of Michelangelo himself, as Heraclitus , which seems to draw clearly from the Sybils and ignudi of the Sistine ceiling.

Other figures in that and later paintings in the room show the same influences, but as still cohesive with a development of Raphael's own style.

These very large and complex compositions have been regarded ever since as among the supreme works of the grand manner of the High Renaissance , and the "classic art" of the post-antique West.

They give a highly idealised depiction of the forms represented, and the compositions, though very carefully conceived in drawings , achieve "sprezzatura", a term invented by his friend Castiglione, who defined it as "a certain nonchalance which conceals all artistry and makes whatever one says or does seem uncontrived and effortless Stanza della Segnatura.

The Mass at Bolsena , , Stanza di Eliodoro. Deliverance of Saint Peter , , Stanza di Eliodoro. The Fire in the Borgo , , Stanza dell'incendio del Borgo, painted by the workshop to Raphael's design.

After Bramante's death in , Raphael was named architect of the new St Peter's. Most of his work there was altered or demolished after his death and the acceptance of Michelangelo's design, but a few drawings have survived.

It appears his designs would have made the church a good deal gloomier than the final design, with massive piers all the way down the nave, "like an alley" according to a critical posthumous analysis by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger.

It would perhaps have resembled the temple in the background of The Expulsion of Heliodorus from the Temple. He designed several other buildings, and for a short time was the most important architect in Rome, working for a small circle around the Papacy.

Julius had made changes to the street plan of Rome, creating several new thoroughfares, and he wanted them filled with splendid palaces.

The main designs for the Villa Farnesina were not by Raphael, but he did design, and decorate with mosaics, the Chigi Chapel for the same patron, Agostino Chigi , the Papal Treasurer.

Another building, for Pope Leo's doctor, the Palazzo Jacopo da Brescia , was moved in the s but survives; this was designed to complement a palace on the same street by Bramante, where Raphael himself lived for a time.

He produced a design from which the final construction plans were completed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger.

Even incomplete, it was the most sophisticated villa design yet seen in Italy, and greatly influenced the later development of the genre; it appears to be the only modern building in Rome of which Palladio made a measured drawing.

Only some floor-plans remain for a large palace planned for himself on the new via Giulia in the rione of Regola , for which he was accumulating the land in his last years.

It was on an irregular island block near the river Tiber. It is preserved at the Library in Munich with handwritten margin notes by Raphael.

The pope intended to continue to re-use ancient masonry in the building of St Peter's, also wanting to ensure that all ancient inscriptions were recorded, and sculpture preserved, before allowing the stones to be reused.

Peter's Square for 90, ducats. The Vatican projects took most of his time, although he painted several portraits, including those of his two main patrons, the popes Julius II and his successor Leo X , the former considered one of his finest.

Other portraits were of his own friends, like Castiglione, or the immediate Papal circle. Other rulers pressed for work, and King Francis I of France was sent two paintings as diplomatic gifts from the Pope.

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They were left many of Raphael's drawings and other possessions, and to some extent continued the workshop after Raphael's death. Penni did not achieve a personal reputation equal to Giulio's, as after Raphael's death he became Giulio's less-than-equal collaborator in turn for much of his subsequent career.

Perino del Vaga , already a master, and Polidoro da Caravaggio , who was supposedly promoted from a labourer carrying building materials on the site, also became notable painters in their own right.

Polidoro's partner, Maturino da Firenze , has, like Penni, been overshadowed in subsequent reputation by his partner.

Giovanni da Udine had a more independent status, and was responsible for the decorative stucco work and grotesques surrounding the main frescoes.

Vasari emphasises that Raphael ran a very harmonious and efficient workshop, and had extraordinary skill in smoothing over troubles and arguments with both patrons and his assistants—a contrast with the stormy pattern of Michelangelo's relationships with both.

Many of his portraits, if in good condition, show his brilliance in the detailed handling of paint right up to the end of his life.

It has been claimed the Flemish Bernard van Orley worked for Raphael for a time, and Luca Penni , brother of Gianfrancesco and later a member of the First School of Fontainebleau , may have been a member of the team.

Portrait of Elisabetta Gonzaga , c. Portrait of Pope Julius II , c. Portrait of Bindo Altoviti , c. Portrait of Baldassare Castiglione , c.

Raphael was one of the finest draftsmen in the history of Western art, and used drawings extensively to plan his compositions.

According to a near-contemporary, when beginning to plan a composition, he would lay out a large number of stock drawings of his on the floor, and begin to draw "rapidly", borrowing figures from here and there.

This is how Raphael himself, who was so rich in inventiveness, used to work, always coming up with four or six ways to show a narrative, each one different from the rest, and all of them full of grace and well done.

When a final composition was achieved, scaled-up full-size cartoons were often made, which were then pricked with a pin and "pounced" with a bag of soot to leave dotted lines on the surface as a guide.

He also made unusually extensive use, on both paper and plaster, of a "blind stylus", scratching lines which leave only an indentation, but no mark.

These can be seen on the wall in The School of Athens , and in the originals of many drawings.

In later works painted by the workshop, the drawings are often painfully more attractive than the paintings. They lack the freedom and energy of some of Leonardo's and Michelangelo's sketches, but are nearly always aesthetically very satisfying.

He was one of the last artists to use metalpoint literally a sharp pointed piece of silver or another metal extensively, although he also made superb use of the freer medium of red or black chalk.

Study for soldiers in this Resurrection of Christ , ca Red chalk study for the Villa Farnesina Three Graces. Sheet with study for the Alba Madonna and other sketches.

Raphael made no prints himself, but entered into a collaboration with Marcantonio Raimondi to produce engravings to Raphael's designs, which created many of the most famous Italian prints of the century, and was important in the rise of the reproductive print.

His interest was unusual in such a major artist; from his contemporaries it was only shared by Titian , who had worked much less successfully with Raimondi.

Raphael made preparatory drawings, many of which survive, for Raimondi to translate into engraving. The most famous original prints to result from the collaboration were Lucretia , the Judgement of Paris and The Massacre of the Innocents of which two virtually identical versions were engraved.

Among prints of the paintings The Parnassus with considerable differences [83] and Galatea were also especially well known.

Outside Italy, reproductive prints by Raimondi and others were the main way that Raphael's art was experienced until the twentieth century.

Baviero Carocci , called "Il Baviera" by Vasari, an assistant who Raphael evidently trusted with his money, [84] ended up in control of most of the copper plates after Raphael's death, and had a successful career in the new occupation of a publisher of prints.

Drawing for a Sibyl in the Chigi Chapel. Judgement of Paris , still influencing Manet , who used the seated group in his most famous work. Galatea, engraving after the fresco in the Villa Farnesina.

From until his death, Raphael lived in the Palazzo Caprini , lying at the corner between piazza Scossacavalli and via Alessandrina in the Borgo , in rather grand style in a palace designed by Bramante.

Vasari claims that he had toyed with the ambition of becoming a cardinal, perhaps after some encouragement from Leo, which also may account for his delaying his marriage.

Raphael died on Good Friday April 6, , which was possibly his 37th birthday. He dictated his will, in which he left sufficient funds for his mistress's care, entrusted to his loyal servant Baviera, and left most of his studio contents to Giulio Romano and Penni.

At his request, Raphael was buried in the Pantheon. Raphael's funeral was extremely grand, attended by large crowds.

According to a journal by Paris de Grassis , [g] four cardinals dressed in purple carried his body, the hand of which was kissed by the Pope. Self-portrait, Raphael in the background, from The School of Athens.

Possible self-portrait by Raphael. Possible Self-portrait with a friend , c. Raphael was highly admired by his contemporaries, although his influence on artistic style in his own century was less than that of Michelangelo.

Mannerism , beginning at the time of his death, and later the Baroque , took art "in a direction totally opposed" to Raphael's qualities; [93] "with Raphael's death, classic art — the High Renaissance — subsided", as Walter Friedländer put it.

Those, like Dolce and Aretino , who held this view were usually the survivors of Renaissance Humanism , unable to follow Michelangelo as he moved on into Mannerism.

Vasari himself, despite his hero remaining Michelangelo, came to see his influence as harmful in some ways, and added passages to the second edition of the Lives expressing similar views.

Raphael's compositions were always admired and studied, and became the cornerstone of the training of the Academies of art.

His period of greatest influence was from the late 17th to late 19th centuries, when his perfect decorum and balance were greatly admired.

He was seen as the best model for the history painting , regarded as the highest in the hierarchy of genres.

Sir Joshua Reynolds in his Discourses praised his "simple, grave, and majestic dignity" and said he "stands in general foremost of the first [i.

He did not possess so many excellences as Raffaelle, but those he had were of the highest kind The excellency of this extraordinary man lay in the propriety, beauty, and majesty of his characters, his judicious contrivance of his composition, correctness of drawing, purity of taste, and the skilful accommodation of other men's conceptions to his own purpose.

Nobody excelled him in that judgment, with which he united to his own observations on nature the energy of Michael Angelo, and the beauty and simplicity of the antique.

To the question, therefore, which ought to hold the first rank, Raffaelle or Michael Angelo, it must be answered, that if it is to be given to him who possessed a greater combination of the higher qualities of the art than any other man, there is no doubt but Raffaelle is the first.

But if, according to Longinus , the sublime, being the highest excellence that human composition can attain to, abundantly compensates the absence of every other beauty, and atones for all other deficiencies, then Michael Angelo demands the preference.

Reynolds was less enthusiastic about Raphael's panel paintings, but the slight sentimentality of these made them enormously popular in the 19th century: "We have been familiar with them from childhood onwards, through a far greater mass of reproductions than any other artist in the world has ever had In Germany, Raphael had an immense influence on religious art of the Nazarene movement and Düsseldorf school of painting in the 19th century.

In contrast, in England the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood explicitly reacted against his influence and that of his admirers such as Joshua Reynolds , seeking to return to styles that pre-dated what they saw as his baneful influence.

According to a critic whose ideas greatly influenced them, John Ruskin :. The doom of the arts of Europe went forth from that chamber [the Stanza della Segnatura], and it was brought about in great part by the very excellencies of the man who had thus marked the commencement of decline.

The perfection of execution and the beauty of feature which were attained in his works, and in those of his great contemporaries, rendered finish of execution and beauty of form the chief objects of all artists; and thenceforward execution was looked for rather than thought, and beauty rather than veracity.

And as I told you, these are the two secondary causes of the decline of art; the first being the loss of moral purpose.

Pray note them clearly. By , Raphael's popularity was surpassed by Michelangelo and Leonardo, perhaps as a reaction against the etiolated Raphaelism of 19th-century academic artists such as Bouguereau.

In contrast to volume upon volume that reproduce yet again detailed photographs of the Sistine Ceiling or Leonardo's drawings, the literature on Raphael, particularly in English, is limited to only a few books".

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the Italian Renaissance painter and architect. For other uses, see Raphael disambiguation.

Presumed portrait of Raphael [1]. Urbino , Duchy of Urbino. Rome , Papal States. Painting Architecture. Raphael Rooms Sistine Madonna Transfiguration.

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